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  1. #61
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    The Alaska State Legislature

    Why Are the Hmong in America?

    Essay by Jeff Lindsay, Appleton, Wisconsin
    (Published in FutureHmong Magazine, June 2002, pp. 14-15.)

    Like their American counterparts, many Hmong people in the United States do not really understand why the Hmong are here. Most Hmong young people know that they are here because of fighting that occurred in Laos, but do they really understand the monumental sacrifice their people made to help the United States? And do non-Hmong Americans understand their debt of gratitude to the Hmong people? Given the misunderstandings I have seen on both sides, I think it would be helpful to review a little history.
    In the late 1950s, southeast Asia, including Laos, was viewed as an important region to the West. With the fall of China to communism and the rise of Communist rebellion in Vietnam, the US sent elite soldiers, the Green Berets, to train Hmong guerrillas to oppose the Vietnamese and the Pathet Lao communists of Laos. Though the Hmong had no desire to play political roles for other nations, they loved freedom and know that there would be little freedom under Communism. They were threatened by the intrusion of North Vietnamese troops into Laos, so the U.S. then encouraged them to fight and provided training and weapons. With CIA assistance, General Vang Pao became the leader of a secret army of 9,000 Hmong men in 1961. Laos was officially neutral as the Vietnam War broke out, and the US had signed an international agreement, the Geneva Accords, intended to keep Laos neutral and prevent fighting there. In reality, this agreement gave the Communists the upper hand, for they flagrantly violated the agreement. Responding to the presence of active North Vietnamese troops in Laos, the US tried to oppose them without appearing to violate the Geneva Accords by secretly recruiting freedom-loving locals to fight the Communist -- and these freedom-loving locals were the Hmong.

    Most Americans thought that Laos was not part of the Vietnam War, but Laos played a critical role, especially since supplies from North Vietnam to its warring troops primarily moved along the Ho Chi Minh trail that passed through Laos. Much fighting occurred along this trail and the surrounding regions in Laos. But our military efforts there were not publicized to avoid international criticism. So we pretended that nothing was happening in Laos, while North

    Vietnamese troops were actively helping the Pathet Lao take over the country, and while thousands of poorly-equipped Hmong were fighting a war against terrible odds. Many Hmong lives would be lost in the unpublicized battles of Laos.

    The Hmong apparently were told that they could bravely fight for the U.S. because the United States would always be there to protect them should local communists turn on the Hmong. It was a relationship of trust, but Hmong trust in the US would be sadly misplaced.

    In 1963 the Kennedy Administration had the CIA increase the secret Hmong army in Laos to 20,000 soldiers. Significant battles occurred as the North Vietnamese and Pathet Lao occupied major areas in northern Laos in 1964. Meanwhile, the US began a secret air war in Laos. By 1968, US pilots would be doing 300 dangerous sorties a day to battle many thousands of Communist troops. Hmong soldiers rescued many American pilots who were shot down. Sometimes dozens of Hmong would die in order to rescue one American pilot. Over 100 Hmong pilots were recruited and trained by the US, and they ran mission after mission until they were all killed. Hmong courage seemed to know no bounds in the fight for freedom. But sadly, much of the fighting seems to have been in vain.

    Years after the war, when the infamous "Pentagon Papers" were published, shocked Americans and Hmong patriots would learn that much of the war was fought by the United States under secret rules that we agreed to that almost guaranteed the fall of South Vietnam to the Communists. Just as the Hmong were told to only fight defensively and not to take steps that could directly throw the North Vietnamese out of their country, so too were U.S. actions continually hampered by rules of engagement, apparently orchestrated by Robert S. McNamara, the US Secretary of Defense at the time. For example, US pilots were not allowed to attack Viet Cong anti-aircraft installations until they were fully functional. Though hotly debated, many are convinced that the war could have been won by cutting off supplies to the North Vietnamese and hitting them in the regions where they were most vulnerable -- something that was forbidden by our rules of engagement. Instead, American soldiers died unnecessarily in jungle skirmishes that gave an upper hand to those familiar with the territory.

    The loss of 60,000 American lives for a no-win war in Vietnam was a tragedy to the huge nation of America, but it was a relatively small percentage of the nation compared to the loss the Hmong people suffered. In 1969, at the time when Congress first learned of our secret war in Laos, about 18,000 Hmong soldiers had already been killed in battle died, and many women and children had died as well. The Hmong were taking a great risk in boldly fighting for the United States, trusting that we would stand by them. But in 1973, the U.S. began to pull out of Laos, leaving the Hmong on their own to fight thousands of North Vietnamese troops in Laos. By 1975, Laos had fallen completely into Communist hands, and the lives of all Hmong people who helped fight the Communists were in jeopardy. More than 100,000 Hmong fled to Thai refugee camps. Many would be killed along the way, especially when crossing the Mekong River to get to Thailand. An estimated 30,000 Hmong would be killed by Communist forces while trying to reach Thailand. Over 100,000 Hmong people died as a result of the war, and today nearly every Hmong family in the US has terrible tales of loss and tragedy relating to the war.

    After taking over Laos in 1975, the Pathet Lao Communists stated that they would wipe out the Hmong. A Vietnamese broadcast apparently called for genocide against them. From 1976 to 1979, there were credible reports of chemical warfare used against Hmong villages. The world tried to ignore these reports, and some influential voices in the United States tried to discredit the evidence, claiming that the "yellow rain" that had been used to kill Hmong people was just natural bee feces, not a chemical toxin. By the time overwhelming evidence had been gathered to shatter the "bee feces" theory, the media no longer seemed interested in exploring charges of genocide by Communist forces.

    The United States, recognizing the sacrifice made by Hmong soldiers to fight for the U.S., began accepting Hmong refugees into the United States in December of 1975. By 1990, about 100,000 refugees had entered the United States. Today approximately 250,000 Hmong are in the U.S., and a similar number still live in Laos. Over 5 million Hmong people are in Southern China, also under Communist rule.

    Writing to an American who was confused about the Hmong people, Jack Austin Smith, a Vietnam Veteran and a retired career soldier, wrote the following in 1996 (quoted from his e-mail to me, with permission):

    The war in Vietnam was fought on several fronts and I served in two them. The main American battle ground was in the Southern end of South Vietnam. In order for the North Vietnamese forces to fight us there, it was necessary for their supplies and troops to go through Laos and Cambodia on the Ho Chi Minh Trail, and Laos was controlled by a Pro-Communist Government at that time. Therefore America was not allowed to have any forces on the ground, although we were allowed to bomb and attack North Vietnamese troops with our aerial forces. About 99% of the combat forces on the ground were Hmong irregulars who were persuaded by Americans to forget about being neutral, and to fight the N. Vietnamese regulars (not relatively poorly trained Viet Cong guerrilla forces). We supplied air cover, but every combat trooper knows aircraft can't take and hold ground. We depended on the Hmongs to do this. Without modern arms, without medical help.

    After the fall of Saigon we pulled out of Southeast Asia and left the Hmongs to continue the fight without air support. When we left, the Hmong had to fight both the Laotians and the N. Vietnamese. They could not fight tanks, heavy artillery and aircraft with rifles. A great many Hmongs were slaughtered in their villages. Many were slaughtered at airfields where they waited for evacuation planes that never came. A few were able to fight every foot of the way across Laos and cross the Mekong River into refugee camps in Thailand where they were further mistreated by rather corrupt UN and Thai officials. Out of a estimated 3,000,000 prewar Hmong population less than 200,000 made it to safety. One other ill informed or stupid writer said "they were all gone" meaning, I guess, that the combat Hmongs were all dead, they are wrong. Most of the survivors are in Australia, France and here among us.
    Now I don't know about those heroes who have never heard a shot fired in anger, but I am embarrassed that my country so mislead these people. The Hmongs gave up literally everything for us: their country, their homes, their peaceful way of life, most of their families, everything that we would cherish. We promised them our continued support and then we bugged out.

    You mentioned having relatives who fought in Vietnam and I hope they all survived. However their chances would have been much less if the Hmongs hadn't intercepted over 50% of the N. Vietnamese troops and supplies. If you truly loved your relatives, you should be grateful for the Hmongs' sacrifices.

    The Vietnam War and subsequent genocidal actions shattered so many lives and families. Every Hmong family in the United States was violated in some way, often with the tragic loss of loved ones. I have heard so many stories of sorrow and loss, the stories of desperate parents trying to hide their children from murderous soldiers, sometimes overdosing their children with opium to keep them from crying and revealing their hiding place. I have heard stories of trying to cross the Mekong River and having loved ones drown or be shot. For those who escaped torture and death in Laos, there would yet be tales of gruesome life in neglected refugee camps, tales of families split up by careless bureaucrats, and tales of shock and confusion as penniless refugees are dropped off in the strange world of America, where the citizens have no idea who the Hmong people were and sometimes viewed them as enemies. I can understand the sorrow of the old people, who sometimes stare out the window and seem immobilized by the tragedy of their loss, yearning for the once peaceful and happy days in the hills of northern Laos. But I cannot understand the ignorance of many Americans, who have not bothered to learn who these people are and why they deserved to be brought to the United States. They bled and died for us. They saved hundreds of American lives at great loss to them and their families.

    We used the Hmong people and their freedom-loving courage, and suddenly abandoned them to genocidal tyrants, keeping their sacrifices largely secret from the American people. Ours is a debt of gratitude that remains incompletely expressed. And for today's Hmong-Americans, yours is a legacy of courage and valor that I hope will inspire you to stand for the highest of human values and bring further honor to your people and your ancestors.

    Inner peace is the key:
    if you have inner peace, the external problems do not affect your deep sense of peace and tranquility...
    without this inner peace, no matter how comfortable your life is materially, you may still be worried, disturbed, or unhappy because of circumstances.

    Dalai Lama -

  2. #62
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  3. #63
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    Quote Originally Posted by tà áo xanh View Post

    Chao TAX, Lau lam Plat ko ghe. Victoria bi Co vi hoanh hanh qua!
    Nhung hinh anh tren y hinh la cua Scarlett O'Hara, Vivien Leigh phai ko?

  4. #64
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    Chào O Plat

    Lâu lâu lắm rồi đó P.
    Người ngỡ đã ra xăm nhưng người bỗng lại về. Không ngay mùa Covid tax ôm hun rôi : )

    Mới đọc tin ở VIC tình trạng hôm nay xong, chùng lòng Plat ơi, cầu chúc P và gia đình an yên, khỏe mạnh. Cẩn thận nhé P và dùng mask nha. Sydney cũng căng. Chỗ tax đỡ hơn không phải dùng mask, vẫn đi làm những giữ khoảng cách.

    Đúng rồi P, hình của nàng đẹp Vivien Leigh, tax save hình bị hơi nhỏ.

    Inner peace is the key:
    if you have inner peace, the external problems do not affect your deep sense of peace and tranquility...
    without this inner peace, no matter how comfortable your life is materially, you may still be worried, disturbed, or unhappy because of circumstances.

    Dalai Lama -

  5. #65
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    Và lòng mang ơn sâu xa:

    The 50 Greatest American Inventions of the Past 50 Years

    Andrew Lisa
    June, 30 2020

    American Ingenuity on Parade

    The past half-century has produced some of the most significant and astounding inventions ever developed in human history, and many notable ones came to life in the United States. From deep space exploration to critical innovations in our medicine cabinets, many American inventions on this list play a role in our daily lives, while others have had a broader impact on society as a whole. All, however, are uniquely American creations.

    1969: Lunar Module

    When Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the moon in 1969, the Lunar Module is what ferried them there. Although 7,000 engineers, technicians, and mechanics built the device, Thomas Kelley of New York City directed the team and is credited with inventing the module, which made possible one of human history's most important events.

    1969: Laser Printer

    The same year that Americans first walked on the moon, a Xerox engineer named Gary Starkweather took a giant leap of his own by converting digital information into a format that a laser could read. His laser printer, which could print two pages per second, would go on to revolutionize offices and homes in the United States and around the world.

    1969: Mouse Pad

    Avid sailor and computer enthusiast Jack Kelley worked at the Stanford Research Institute in 1968 alongside Douglas Engelbart, the man who invented the computer mouse. Feeling that something was missing from Engelbart's mouse, Kelley invented a complementary mouse pad, which became a common sight in homes and offices across the country.

    1969: Taser

    The first electronic immobilization device, better known by the brand name Taser, was developed in 1969 by a United States physicist and NASA associate named Jack Cover. The less-than-lethal device was developed for situations where firearms aren't practical, like airplane cabins. The device, which is often used by law enforcement, remains controversial.

    1971: Personal Computer

    Apple, IBM, Steve Jobs, and Bill Gates are all household names in the tech world these days, but a relatively obscure man named John Blankenbaker is credited with inventing the world's first personal computer. Blankenbaker was a pioneer on the computing frontier when he built the Kenback-1 Digital Computer in his garage in California.

    1971: Weed Whacker

    Tired of struggling to manicure the edges of his expansive Texas property after mowing, inventor George Ballas developed one of history's most important landscaping tools: the string trimmer. Although he called it the Weed Eater, it would forever be known colloquially as the weed whacker.

    1971: Email

    The era of constant connection began in 1971, when U.S. Department of Defense programmer Ray Tomlinson invented a way to send text-based messages from person to person through electronic mail, better known as email. Tomlinson is also credited with making the @ symbol a permanent fixture in human communication.

    1971: Waffle Sole Running Shoe

    In 1971, track-and-field coach and Nike co-founder Bill Bowerman had been searching for a light, cleatless shoe that had good grip on varied surfaces. One morning, he poured a rubberized liquid into his wife's waffle maker and the waffle sole was born. The shoe was such a success that Nike still sells Waffle Trainers to this day.

    1971: Universal Product Code (UPC)

    If you've ever purchased anything, you know that virtually every product is tagged with a barcode that includes a series of vertical lines and a 12-digit numerical code. That code, the UPC, was invented by IBM engineer George Laurer in 1974. Before barcodes caught on, cashiers punched in all prices by hand.

    1971: Anti-Lock Brakes

    Now mandated as standard equipment on all cars, modern anti-lock braking systems trace their roots to 1971, when the Delco Moraine company gave a prototype car anti-skid technology originally developed to help airplanes stop.

    1972: Video Game Console

    From Atari and Intellivision to Nintendo and the graphically stunning web-based video games of today, gamers everywhere have Ralph Baer to thank for their hobby. Baer invented the Magnavox Odyssey, the world's first home video game console after realizing that television, which was common by 1972, had more to offer.

    1972: Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Countless human lives have been saved by the diagnostic capabilities of the MRI machine, widely considered one of the greatest breakthroughs in modern medicine. Dr. Raymond Damadian received a patent for his device in 1972 and would conduct the first full-body scan in 1977.

    1973: Cellphones

    Our modern mobile era can trace its roots to 1973 and an engineer and inventor named Martin Cooper, who developed the first hand-held cellular phone. Mobile phones had been around since the 1940s, but their enormous size and a limited number of channels rendered them impractical. Cooper placed the world's first cellphone call from his car in 1973.

    (còn tiếp)

    Inner peace is the key:
    if you have inner peace, the external problems do not affect your deep sense of peace and tranquility...
    without this inner peace, no matter how comfortable your life is materially, you may still be worried, disturbed, or unhappy because of circumstances.

    Dalai Lama -

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    ( tiếp theo. . . )

    1973: Voicemail

    If you ever feel like you can never truly get away, you probably have inventor Stephen J. Boies to thank (or blame). People had been tinkering with contraptions to record the human voice from afar since the mid-19th century. But in 1973, Boies developed the Speech Filing System, which was the first voicemail. It allowed people to check messages from any phone even when the recording device wasn't present.

    1974: Post-It Note

    In virtually every office in America these days, you can find small squares of brightly colored paper glued temporarily to surfaces. In 1974, 3M co-workers Arthur Fry and Spencer Silver invented the now-familiar Post-it Note, with the former creating the paper and the latter developing the glue.

    1975: Digital Cameras

    In 1975, the first nail was hammered into the film camera's coffin when Eastman Kodak engineer Steven Sasson invented the digital camera. The 24-year-old from Brooklyn was the first to use a new technology called digitalization to capture images. Four decades later, we carry his invention in our pockets on our phones.

    1978: Bulletin Board System

    Billions of human beings are now connected through social media. All online social channels, however, can trace their roots back to 1978 and the genesis of all social media: the BBS. Developed by Ward Christensen and Randy Suess, the BBS connected users and enabled them to share text-based information long before the arrival of Facebook, Instagram, and even MySpace.

    1978: Microwave Popcorn Bag

    In May 1981, William A. Brastad was awarded a patent for a product he invented three years earlier. His invention, the microwave popcorn bag, incorporated kernels, butter, and spices in a folded bag that trapped steam as it expanded, which then popped the kernels, forever changing our movie-watching experience at home.
    1978 was also notable as it was the year when the U.S. military launched the first satellite of a proposed 24-satellite global positioning system called NAVSTAR, later known as "the GPS system" and eventually used in part for civilian purposes.

    1978: The Electronic Spreadsheet

    People had been writing spreadsheets by hand for hundreds of years before the age of computers. But in 1978, Harvard Business School student Dan Bricklin began work on what he called a visible calculator. It would go on to become VisiCalc, the world's first electronic spreadsheet. VisiCalc is arguably the first app in history, and it shipped running on the brand-new Apple II computer in 1979.

    1981: Space Shuttle

    The versatile and reusable space shuttle revolutionized the space program and space travel in general. Although the shuttle was the result of a group effort, NASA pioneer Dr. George A. Mueller is credited with developing the shuttle after he completed Project Apollo. Space Shuttle Columbia's maiden launch was on April 12, 1981.

    1981: Graphical User Interface

    If you enjoy using a computer without typing long strings of complicated codes, you have Douglas Engelbart and Alan Kay to thank. In 1981, the pair developed the graphical user interface, which allows users to click icons and images using a mouse, an item Engelbart invented more than a decade earlier.

    1984: Pointing Stick

    The device that would evolve into the familiar computer trackball and TrackPoint started as the pointing stick, which was invented by IBM computer scientists Ted Selker and Joe Rutledge in 1984. The tiny ball, which sits nestled between the G and H keys on a QWERTY keyboard, allowed users to interact with their graphical user interface directly from their keyboards.

    1984: Macintosh Personal Computer

    The computer age can be split into two eras: before 1984 and after. That was the year Apple released the Macintosh computer. Before the Macintosh, which was the first affordable computer ever to come with a graphical user interface and a mouse, computers were designed only for businesses, techies, and experts. The Macintosh made computers available for the average person in the average household.

    ( còn tiếp)

    Inner peace is the key:
    if you have inner peace, the external problems do not affect your deep sense of peace and tranquility...
    without this inner peace, no matter how comfortable your life is materially, you may still be worried, disturbed, or unhappy because of circumstances.

    Dalai Lama -

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    ( tiếp theo. . . )

    1985: Lipitor

    The best-known member of the anti-cholesterol statin family of drugs, Lipitor is the biggest-selling prescription drug in history. Countless patients at high risk for heart disease have extended their lives by taking Lipitor, which is now prescribed to 80 out of every 1,000 people. The drug was first synthesized in the United States by Dr. Bruce Roth for Warner-Lambert, a drug company with American roots dating back to the 1800s. Pfizer acquired Warner-Lambert in 2000.

    1986: 3D Printing

    Chuck Hull, known as the father of 3D printing, patented his stereolithography technique in 1986. The technique involves layering thousands of thin sheets of plastic on top of each other to create a physical 3D object. Once a novelty for hobbyists, the technology has since been used in applications ranging from manufacturing to medical science.

    1987: Rollaboard Luggage

    Luggage with wheels dates back to the early 1970s, but it was a top-heavy version with a pull-strap, which was clumsy when compared to today's modern Rollaboard-style luggage. Invented by Northwest Airlines pilot Robert Plath, the Rollaboard incorporated a now-familiar long, fixed telescoping handle that enabled luggage to be pulled upright on two wheels — just one of many American inventions that we now use on a daily basis.

    1988: Disposable Contact Lenses

    Leonardo da Vinci imagined and illustrated the concept of contact lenses as far back as 1508, and companies began making them out of glass in the late 1800s. In 1988, however, Johnson & Johnson released the modern disposable contact lens, beating rival Bausch & Lomb to the punch.

    1988: Nicotine Patch

    Although Murray Jarvik, Jed Rose, and Daniel Rose were finally granted a patent in 1990, the trio of doctors perfected their nicotine patch in 1988. The three men had been experimenting with transdermal nicotine absorption, as well as the psychology of smoking addiction before developing the patch, which has since helped countless smokers quit.

    1988: Stealth Bomber

    In 1988, Northrop-Grumman unveiled a super plane it had been building for the better part of a decade. The B-2, better known as the stealth bomber, was a massive, deadly aircraft with a radar-dodging design that made it nearly undetectable to even highly advanced anti-aircraft systems.

    1990: Hubble Space Telescope

    Modern astronomy is epitomized by the Hubble Space Telescope. Named after Edwin Hubble, one of history's most important astronomers, the telescope was launched in 1990. The Hubble doesn't have one single inventor, but the collaborative effort has allowed scientists to peer through 6 billion light years of space since it departed Earth.

    1990: Photoshop

    Adobe Photoshop is such a staple for image-editing that when a picture appears doctored, it is common to say it's been "photoshopped," even if the picture was edited with a different program. The word didn't exist, however, before 1990, when the Knoll brothers, Thomas and John, developed the first version of the software, which was initially purchased by another company before Adobe realized its incredible potential.

    1992: Smart Pill

    In 1992, University of Buffalo professor of pharmaceutical science Jerome Schentag developed and patented the smart pill. A revolutionary medical breakthrough, the smart pill is a medical device that is encapsulated in pill form and controlled by a computer. When patients swallow the pill, they swallow the device.

    1993: UV Waterworks

    In 1993, Ashok Gadgil invented a lightweight, easy-to-use and economical device that used UV light to purify water. It could process four gallons per minute at a cost of 5 cents for every thousand gallons. The product, which can deliver clean water to remote, rural areas, has become vital in the wake of hurricanes and other natural disasters, and one of many American inventions that has helped to save lives.

    ( còn tiếp )

    Inner peace is the key:
    if you have inner peace, the external problems do not affect your deep sense of peace and tranquility...
    without this inner peace, no matter how comfortable your life is materially, you may still be worried, disturbed, or unhappy because of circumstances.

    Dalai Lama -

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    ( tiếp theo . . . )

    1994: Predator Drone

    Once a military novelty, drones are now must-have weapons for the world's most formidable fighting forces. It all started with the first, and still best-known: the Predator. Although the world's most feared and most famous unmanned aircraft was developed by Israeli-born Abraham Karem, it was built in — and for — the United States.

    1996: Google

    In 1996, two students named Larry Page and Sergey Brin unveiled a primitive "crawler" that examined all 10 million documents that existed on the World Wide Web at that time. The crawler would go onto become the name that is still synonymous with online search: Google.

    1999: Wi-Fi

    Wi-Fi is a critical ingredient for daily life in the digital age. Although the government had been utilizing Wi-Fi before 1999, that was the year it was released to the public, but not before a major naming war and a scramble to build compatible devices by several rival companies. During the last year of the 20th century, Apple began adding Wi-Fi slots to all its laptops.

    2001: Human Genome Map

    When scientists Francis Collins and Craig Venter began work on mapping the human genome in the early 1990s, the government had already been using a much slower and more expensive method for sequencing the human genome's 3 billion base pairs. By developing a cheaper, faster method, Collins and Venter finished the project two years early and published their results in 2001, ushering in a new era in the effort to prevent and cure disease.

    2001: iPod

    Although several other companies had released their own MP3 players, Apple's introduction of the iPod in 2001 revolutionized portable music and set the tone for how people would interact with their devices in the digital age. It also positioned Apple as the dominant force in tech hardware for the next decade.

    2001: Segway

    In 2001, the world was introduced to one of the most easily identifiable transportation devices ever created: the gyroscopic, self-balancing Segway scooter. The Segway was the brainchild of Dean Kamen, one of the most prolific inventors of the modern age. Kamen has hundreds of patents across many fields.

    2001: Bio-Artificial Liver

    Hailed by Time magazine as one of the best inventions of 2001, the Bio-Artificial Liverbrought new hope to patients around the world. Developed by Dr. Kenneth Matsumura, the Bio-Artificial Liver utilized both the patient's blood and live rabbit cells to mimic the blood-cleansing process of the natural organ.

    2004: Facebook

    In 2004, Harvard University student Mark Zuckerberg launched TheFacebook, a social media network he created for his fellow students. He would soon drop "The," branch the network out beyond the walls of Harvard, and make sneakers and hoodies the standard uniform for millennial tech barons. Facebook is now worth around $615 billion, and its founder is one of the richest people in the world.

    2005: YouTube

    YouTube is the world's most popular video-sharing site. Developed by PayPal employees Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, and Jawed Karim, the site's user-friendly, shareable format has been a key mover in not just American culture, but world events from the Arab Spring revolts to the rise of Justin Bieber.

    2006: Twitter

    On March 21, 2006, computer programmer and Twitter co-founder Jack Dorsey sent the world's first tweet. Twitter, which was co-founded by fellow programmers Biz Stone and Evan Williams in San Francisco, would go on to revolutionize communication, journalism, entertainment, and politics. Today, a half billion tweets are sent every single day by 310 million active users. The majority of world leaders have active Twitter accounts, including one notoriously Twitter-prone president.

    2007: iPhone

    By 2007, the mobile phone was nearly universal. But that year, Apple, under the stewardship of Steve Jobs, revolutionized the budding smartphone industry with a device that crammed the operational capacity of a computer into the body of a phone. The iPhone was born.

    2009: Fitbit

    The world was introduced to a revolutionary personal fitness tracker called Fitbit in time for Christmas in 2009. Invented by James Park and Eric Friedman, the device measures and records vital statistics and activity. Today, Fitbit claims more than 23.2 million active users and more than one-third of the wearable tech market.

    2012: Google Glass

    Although it never fully entered the mainstream, the arrival of Google Glass in 2012 ushered in the era of integrated wearables. The device, which users wear like eyeglasses, was first seen on the face of Google co-founder Sergey Brin when he wore the device to a charity dinner.

    2013: Lab-Grown Burger

    Six years ago, Dutch scientist Mark Post produced the first lab-grown burger — it took two years and $300,000, however. Since then, the cost of producing what is being coined "clean meat" — due to its much-lower environmental impact — has lowered while the number of players racing to produce meatballs, steaks, pork, poultry, and seafood, has skyrocketed. Early in 2019, Bill Gates called lab-grown meats one of the "10 Breakthrough Technologies" of 2019. For more American inventions and innovators looking to make a difference in the world, check out 26 Companies That Are Doing Good Deeds With Your Dollars.

    2015: Tesla Model X

    In 2015, Tesla unveiled the Model X, which the company called "the safest, quickest, and most capable sport utility vehicle in history." It came off the assembly line complete with self-driving hardware, goes nearly 300 miles on a single electric charge, and accelerates 0-60 mph in 2.9 seconds. In 2017, Tesla released the more budget-friendly but equally impressive Model 3.

    2017: 3D Ocean Farms

    Another burgeoning technology meant to address both climate and overpopulation concerns, this brainchild — in which crops such as clams, kelp, oysters, and mussels, are grown on ropes anchored to the sea floor — was named one of the top inventions of 2017 by Time magazine. The technology's frontrunner, GreenWave, was started by former fisherman turned sustainable shellfish and seaweed farmer Bren Smith.

    2018: Google Duplex

    More of an extension of an invention — that of artificially intelligent home assistants like the Amazon Echo — the Google Duplex is actually one of a few front-runners of next-gen AIs that can perform eerily human-like, conversational tasks like screening calls and making restaurant reservations, thanks to better speech training and synthesis techniques. Not yet invented? A way to balance improved technology with privacy and security concerns.

    More American Inventions

    Curious about other American inventions that may have been developed prior to 50 years ago? Here are some highlights of other ingenious innovations that were developed in the United States:
    1903: First Fully Practical Airplane — The Wright brothers successfully launch the first powered, sustained, and controlled airplane flight.
    1938: Chocolate Chip Cookies — Created by Ruth Wakefield with the help of Susan Brides at the Toll House Inn in Massachusetts. 1938 is the first year the recipe appeared in print.

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    Last edited by tà áo xanh; Yesterday at 01:01 PM.

    Inner peace is the key:
    if you have inner peace, the external problems do not affect your deep sense of peace and tranquility...
    without this inner peace, no matter how comfortable your life is materially, you may still be worried, disturbed, or unhappy because of circumstances.

    Dalai Lama -



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