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  1. #11
    I can't breathe. ốc's Avatar
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    Không trường đố mày làm nên:

    Macron to close elite school
    https://www.theguardian.com/world/20...ite-presidents

    Known as ENA, the grande école has been the hothouse for France’s top civil service and a pathway to power in the public and private sectors. Four French presidents, including Macron, have passed through its doors as have dozens of ministers and business leaders.

    Founded by Gen Charles de Gaulle in October 1945 with the idea of breaking the upper-class hold over France’s higher echelons, ending nepotism and making the civil service more democratic, it has instead become a byword for an establishment elite and been accused by critics of encouraging groupthink.

    While the number of students from privileged families was 45% in the 1950s and 60s, this had risen to about 70% between 2005 and 2014, while those from working-class families fell to about 6%.


    Macron’s decision to shut ENA was reportedly prompted by the
    gilets jaunes protest movement that began in 2018 and was sparked by a sense that the country’s leaders were out of touch with ordinary French people, especially those living outside the cities.

    De Gaulle’s aim of installing more égalité in French higher education was never realised and a 2015 study from the European Centre For Sociology And Political Science to mark its 70th anniversary stated: “However it is calculated, the intake has not democratised during the last 70 years”.

    It concluded the ENA founders’ dream had not been realised, while admitting that one point in ENA’s favour was that the number of female students had risen to 45%.


    ENA officials have pointed out the school’s socioeconomic profile is better than at some of France’s other elite higher education establishments, but critics have also attacked ENA as an echo chamber that trammels students along intellectually conformist positions.


    Peter Gumbel, a British academic, has claimed that France’s
    grande école system, and especially the ENA, has the effect of perpetuating an intellectually brilliant yet out-of-touch ruling elite.
    Con quan thì lại làm quan

  2. #12
    I can't breathe. ốc's Avatar
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    Không trò (chơi) đố mày làm nên: tuyệt học vô chơi

    ‘Let children play’: the educational message from across Europe
    https://www.theguardian.com/society/...-across-europe

    Every morning, Arja Salonen drops her five-year-old son, Onni, off at a daycare centre in Espoo, west of Helsinki, where he will spend the next eight hours doing what Finnish educators believe all children his age should do: playing.

    School, and formal learning, does not start in Finland until age seven. Before then, children’s preoccupations are not reading, writing or arithmetic, but, said Salonen, herself a secondary-school teacher in the capital, “learning more important things”.

    Those include, she says, how to make friends, communicate, be active, get creative, explore the outdoors and manage risk. “In Finland we feel children must be children, and that means playing – including, as much as possible, outdoors,” she said.

    The main goal of kindergarten, which about 75% of three- to five-year-olds attend, according to the Finnish educational expert Pasi Sahlberg, is “not to prepare children for school academically, but to make sure they are happy and responsible individuals”.

    Not all education systems in Europe are like Finland’s, which places equality at its core, outlawing formal exams until age 18 and eschewing parental choice, selection, streaming by ability and league tables.

    The pandemic has also focused minds on the importance of play in Germany, where – although playgrounds have remained open since the end of the first lockdown – many parents and paediatricians say children’s needs have been at the bottom of the government’s agenda throughout the crisis.
    Học thày không tày học trò (chơi).

  3. #13
    Biệt Thự Triển's Avatar
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    7, 8 chục tuổi còn khoái ...chơi mà. Lòng vòng diễn đàn thấy bày binh bố trận.
    http://dtphorum.com/pr4/signaturepics/sigpic726_7.gif

  4. #14
    I can't breathe. ốc's Avatar
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    Chắc giống Lão ngoan đồng.

    Ấu bất học, lão hàppy.

  5. #15
    Biệt Thự Triển's Avatar
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    Không lạc đà đố trò làm nên.





    Camel brings books and joy to home-schooled kids in Pakistan

    (coi nữa)
    http://dtphorum.com/pr4/signaturepics/sigpic726_7.gif

 

 

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